Past and Present Developments in Vocational Learning in Eastern Europe.

Andrea Laczik – Éva Farkas (2018). Past and Present Developments in Vocational Learning in Eastern Europe. The Case of Hungary. In: Simon, McGrath; Martin, Mulder; Joy, Papier; Rebecca, Stuart (szerk.) Handbook of Vocational Education and Training: Developments in the Changing World of Work. Springer International Publishing


The Hungarian vocational education and training (VET) system is becoming once again highly centralized and state controlled. This chapter discusses the tendencies of centralization and decentralization of VET in three periods: 1945–1989, 1990–2010, and 2010–present. The first section concentrates on events that have influenced and impacted on the development of education within the monolithic state. It is shown through examples how the Hungarian education system slowly moved away from a highly centralized system. The next section demonstrates the immediate reaction to the collapse of the one-party system which resulted in a highly decentralized VET system. During 1990–2010 the VET system became stabilized, and measures were introduced to reach a balance. Nevertheless, this period is still primarily characterized by decentralization of VET. The post-2010 period is discussed in most detail in the third section of the chapter. Due to the fact that the nationalist conservative government elected in 2010 is still in power, once again the VET system experiences considerable centralization and state control.